5 1 Compare And Contrast Job Order Costing And Process Costing

process vs job costing

Combined with information on lunchbox and thermos sales over the same period of time, you have a powerful data set that can help guide your business decisions in the future. Some projects involve a series of individual items, for example, six custom computers for one customer. To get the job order cost you’d figure out the total cost and divide by six. The number of equivalent units is different from the number of actual units and represents the number of full or whole units that could have been produced given the amount of effort applied. Your friends served themselves, and when they were finished eating, there were several partial pizzas left. In equivalent units, determine how many whole pizzas are left if the remaining slices are divided as shown in Figure 5.5. Understanding the full manufacturing process for a product helps with tracking costs.

process vs job costing

The next picture shows the cost flows in a process cost system that processes the products in a specified sequential order. That is, the production and processing of products begin in Department bookkeeping A. From Department A, products go to Department B. Department B inputs direct materials and further processes the products. Then Department B transfers the products to Finished Goods Inventory.

The method for treating over or under absorbed overheads in both costing systems is almost the same. process vs job costing As process costing does not have different batches, the costs are allocated systematically.

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A lot of record keeping is required for job costing since time and material must be charged to specific jobs. Process costing on the other hand, aggregates costs and so requires less record keeping. In job costing, the costs are determined exclusively for each job and therefore no transfer of costs is required. While in process costing, costing costs need to be transferred from one process to another. In the case of a not-for-profit company, the same process could be used to determine the average costs incurred by a department that performs interviews.

This means that the company would estimate $6 in manufacturing overhead costs for every one machine hour worked. So, if the company actually worked 5000 machine hours, the estimated overhead costs would be $30,000. Due to the need for immediate access to job costs, many companies use a predetermined/budgeted, manufacturing overhead rate to estimate manufacturing overhead costs. I hope this post is helpful to understand the difference between job costing and process costing and to make comparison between them. Job costing may assess all costs involved in a construction “job” or in the manufacturing of goods done in discrete batches. These costs are recorded in ledger accounts throughout the life of the job or batch and are then summarized in the final trial balance before the preparing of the job cost or batch manufacturing statement.

process vs job costing

Since one lunchbox is much like another, you can average out the costs rather than calculating the cost of each individual lunchbox. Therefore, $5,000 in new cost is added ($2,000 DM, $500 DL, $2,500 OH). This amount is transferred out of Work in Process to Finished Goods or Cost of Goods Sold.


As the account name implies, these products are finished and ready for sale. Alpine Clothing’s staff uses a timecard system to track each worker’s total hours worked. At the end of each day, the gross wages for each worker is posted to the labor control account, which “parks” labor costs until they are assigned to production. Susie budgets a profit of 15% of total cost, and profit is added to costs to produce a sale price for the customer.

  • Each type of product produced will have a slightly different cost total.
  • Over a 30-day period, the manufacturer accumulates a total amount of $200,000 from direct costs for materials and resources.
  • Then Department B transfers the products to Finished Goods Inventory.
  • Alpine Clothing’s staff uses a timecard system to track each worker’s total hours worked.
  • Since job costing is more specific and only accounts for one project or product at a time, it requires more detailed record keeping.
  • Moreover, when it comes to documentation, in case of Job Costing, the job cost sheet is important whereas in Process Costing a document having deposition and accumulation of various costs is important.

Process Costing helps to keep a tight reign over the monthly expenditures in a manufacturing business. Online Accounting The auto repair shop that Joey works at will rebuild the engine of Customer A’s car.

Job costing is used to determine the cost of the specialized job which is manufactured to meet the client’s specific need. Whereas Process Costing is used for standardized products are being produced. Job costing is a method of evaluating the cost of the tailor-made component, which is ascertained for each job. Conversely, process costing is a costing technique that is used to determine the cost of each process. Indirect cost is a fraction of the direct cost, which is considered while calculating the overall cost of the product.

Similarities Between Process Costing And Job Order Costing

This methodology is differentiated from job order costing in the cost finding process. While job order costing is best used in the finding of per unit costs, this method finds the total average costs of production over a certain period of time . Costing techniques are very important to the business management because they help them make sound decisions for the company. They also help companies keep track of the costs that they incur in the production process. The techniques are mainly for internal use apart from absorption costing which is used by external users like the shareholders and the creditors. This paper analyses the process costing techniques and compares it with job order costing.

Job costing each job is different from another, so it has individuality. But, later, products are produced in large volume, and consequently, therefore, it does not have individuality. It’s best to make an effort to connect each overhead cost to a related or at least somewhat related activity. It enables the company to be in a position to analyze costs for longer jobs hence room for adjustment . Learn accounting fundamentals and how to read financial statements with CFI’s free online accounting classes.

When a factory makes medicines, for instance, one bottle of pills is no different from the next. Some manufacturers mass produce hundreds or even thousands of units for sale in a short period. It’s the difference between, say, creating custom furniture and mass-manufacturing identical plastic chairs. You may find that the case for your business is clear cut, and that one or the other of job/process costing is clearly the superior choice for you. Or you might be in a situation where some mixing and matching is required, if you are dealing in both uniform products and more customisable, unique orders.

process vs job costing

Job Costing is to calculate the costs involved of a business in manufacturing goods. These costs are recorded in ledger accounts throughout the year and are then shown in the final trial balance before the preparing of the manufacturing statement. A comparative study of process and job costing will help in understanding both systems in a better way. There is no feature of the transfer of cost available in the job costing for any of the components. However, the cost of the last process is transferable to any subsequential process. Wood and fastener metals are typically added at the beginning of the process and are easily tracked as direct material.

Both job order costing and process costing systems are used to allocate expenses like material, labor, overheads (production and/or non-production) to the end products in a manufacturing process. The process costing system is a costing method that is used to calculate unit costs for the finished goods at the end of a large production process. There exist no individual or separate orders and so no individual allocation of costs is required.

Process costing is suited for large production where there are different levels of producing a product. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The work in progress account is changed to a control account and is thus not affected by the allocated manufacturing overheads.


Any costs incurred is due to the whole production process and so all the costs make part of the end product. Process costing is used when the products are more homogeneous in nature. Conversely, job costing systems assign costs to distinct production jobs that are significantly different. An average cost per unit of product is then calculated for each job. Job costing is accounting which tracks the costs and revenues by “job” and enables standardized reporting of profitability by job. For an accounting system to support job costing, it must allow job numbers to be assigned to individual items of expenses and revenues. A job can be defined to be a specific project done for one customer, or a single unit of product manufactured, or a batch of units of the same type that are produced together.

Job Order Costing Guide

Even stationary items could be considered material costs relevant to the project they are needed for. Process costing is a method of assigning Accounting Periods and Methods costs for a mass quantity of a product or service. For example, a bank provides the same service of receiving deposits to all customers.

Characteristics Of A Cost Accounting System That Accurately Allocates A Company’s Fixed And Variable Expenses

Making the masks is a process that requires material and labor, and costs are incurred as the product moves through production and from one department to another. The fabric is cut into the correct shape, then each mask is sewn, and then the masks are packaged for shipment. Each job is different, depending on the size of the home, whether or not the items are packed ahead of time or to be packed in advance of the move, and the distance between homes.

In job order cost production, the costs can be directly traced to the job, and the job cost sheet contains the total expenses for that job. Process costing is optimal when the costs cannot be traced directly to the job. For example, it would be impossible for David and William to trace the exact amount of eggs in each chocolate chip cookie. It is also impossible to trace the exact amount of hickory in a drumstick. Even two sticks made sequentially may have different weights because the wood varies in density.

Similarly, byproducts are also a part of many manufacturing processes. Byproducts can be sold, and the income earned through the sale of byproducts can be used to reduce the cost of the process and finished goods under process costing. Businesses that work based on a specific order take work or orders in different jobs, batches, or contracts. With process costing, you’re easily able to look at the cost of manufacturing lunchboxes vs. thermoses.

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